BY IN alkaline water, Autoimmune diseases, blood pressure, calcium, cancer research, diabetes, diet, insulin, iodine, Obesity, salt, sodium, thyroid, under-urination NO COMMENTS YET


(© 31 July 2015: Dr.V.M.Palaniappan,Ph.D.)

Most of the time, for want of proper explanation of the auto-immune disease phenomenon, people tend to describe it in the following manner:

In this regard, let us see a latest news that concerns “promising progress for new treatment of type-1 diabetes”  

The following URL would take you to the hot news that was in Medical Xpress (July 30, 2015):

 “The exact cause of T1D is not yet known, however, it is considered as an autoimmune disease. A condition that occurs when our own immune system by mistake attack and destroy healthy cells. In T1D, an infection and/or unknown factors probably triggers the immune cell attack, which ultimately leads to an insufficient insulin production.”
(T1D refers to Type-1 Diabetes)

(The above comes from the journal Scientific Reports, and the authors are from Uppsala University: Dr. Kailash Singh and Professor Stellan Sander.)

Let me offer here my explanation for the occurrence of not only T1D, but also for ALL other auto-immune diseases. 

To understand the phenomenon, one should read the following text in FULL, rather than skipping parts of it, with the assumption that it is already known information. (I can assure you, you will be certainly benefitted by doing so.) 

As against the normal medical ethics, I performed a small research on my own body. 

I had to do that essentially because, I felt that, that is the only way by which I can control (or account for) all OTHER variables that often tend to mislead a researcher. 


The FDA has the following to say about SODIUM intake:

Average Sodium Intake
“The human body requires sodium, commonly referred to as salt, to balance the fluids in the body and help transmit signals between the nerves, muscles and brain.
Consuming too much sodium, however, causes an increase in blood volume and contributes to high blood pressure.
The average American consumes 3436 mg of sodium per day, according to the American Heart Association, which is well above the daily recommended intake.”
I initiated my study, based on the following hypothesis I developed:

5 grams (5,000 mg – more than double the amount recommended by the FDA), about a teaspoon of salt in a glass (250ml) of water would form a strong salt solution, and that would taste very bitter.   

If that amount of salt is dissolved in 1 L (1,000 ml) of water, it would taste slightly better, but still on the higher side. 

If the same quantity is dissolved in 2 L water, it may taste nice. 

If that is dissolved in 3 L, then one may feel (if that happens to be a soup) that the salt is NOT enough. He may want to add a little more to make it tastier.  


The salt, upon entering into the body, helps in balancing the body fluids, works as an electrolyte by helping to conduct impulses from the brain to the muscles, and the like, and then gets leached out of the body in the urinal fluid. (If we consume more salt, urine becomes more salty.) 

If we drink LESS water, in other words, if we drink a strong salt solution, the salt content of the voided urine will be at its maximum saturation point.  

Excess salt that cannot be voided beyond the saturation point of the consumed water will stay within the body. 

This will then increase the salt concentration of the body fluids. 

In other words, 

If a person takes 10 grams of salt, and if he drinks only HALF a  litre of water (500ml), then, his body would retain abundant salt. 

Such a high salt retention would certainly increase the consistency of the blood, thicken it, increase the blood pressure, give strokes and heart failure, and also kidney disease. 

On the other hand, if the person drinks, say, 5 L of water, then the 10 gm salt would still perform ifs function inside the body, and would get easily removed in the urine, for THAT amount of water will not get saturated with salt. 

In this latter case, the blood may not coagulate, but may remain thin as if aspirin is taken. The pressure may NOT increase, instead of it, LOW blood pressure tends to occur (Palaniappan,V.M., 2001. Heart problems, diabetes, and related diseases. ISBN 978-967- 9988-08-2: pages: 113-156).  Strokes, heart failure, and kidney damage too may not occur. 


If we want to test the ill effects of increased salt consumption, we should design an experiment in the following manner: (It is just a hypothetical one, meant to provoke further thinking in the right perspective): 

Let us say we are testing it on 4,000 men and 4,000 women. 

All these people should (at least in theory):

·       Live in the same environment,

·       Practice same kind of lifestyle (including fan usage, physical exercise, etc.)

·       ALL the 8,000 people should be given, say, 5 grams of salt daily. 

The above are called VARIABLES. Such variables should be same as far as possible, so that errors will not occur while conducting the experiment. 

First lot of 2000 people should be given HALF Litre (500ml)  water daily (and no other liquids). 

Second lot of 2000 should drink 2 L water. 

The third lot 2000, 3 L. 

The fourth lot should take 4 L. 
(Ref: Quantities of salt and water: More variations can be included, if felt necessary)

If the experiment is carried out for a year, the following results can be expected, based on my earlier study  (Palaniappan,V.M., 2001. Heart problems, diabetes, and related diseases. ISBN 978-967- 9988-08-2: pages: 113-156).   

Those who took only half L water daily + 5 grams salt can be expected to almost certainly develop high blood pressure, stroke, heart and kidney failures. 

Those who took 2 L, may get slight high blood pressure, and the above to a lesser degree. 

Those who took 3 L, almost certainly will not develop any of the above diseases. 

Those who took 4 L water, may end up with LOW blood pressure. They may end up being THIN, for most of the weight-contributing calcium would get leached out in the excessive urination. (See: 
 Palaniappan,V.M. (1998). Obesity: causes, cure and prevention. 471pp. ISBN 978-967-9988-05-8;
Palaniappan, V.M. (2013). All about obesity in a nutshell.  254pp. ISBN 978-967-9988-15-4)
In this group of people, their blood would remain very thin, and strokes, heart failure and kidney damage, etc. would not occur at all! 



As a matter of fact, if blood samples of all the four groups of people are tested for the salt content, the following would become obvious: 

The blood of those who have been taking 500 ml water would show very high salt concentration – hence all the diseases. 

That of those taking 2 L, may show sodium concentration on the upper side of the normal range. 

Those taking 3 L may exhibit on the LOWER side of the normal range. 

Those consuming 4 L water daily may show SALT (Sodium)INADEQUACY.

The above was the hypothesis I developed in 1998 

I did so because, I have been consuming too much of salt all the time from childhood, but had LOW BLOOD PRESSURE. 

This led me to do an experiment on my own person, as said above, against the normal medical ethics that one should not use one’s own body for experimentation.

The following experiment is what I did to study the effect of excessive salt consumption: 

Let me copy-paste here what I have written in my book: Palaniappan,V.M., 2001. Heart problems, diabetes, and related diseases. ISBN 978-967-9988-08-2: 284pp). 

Here it is: Excerpts from pages 131-136:


“A true situation that happened in my life

Since 1975, it has become a regular practice for me to test a hypothesis on me rather than doing it on other people. 

This time, based on my findings, I wanted to tell all, that taking plenty of salt, guided only by the taste buds on the tongue, would not be harmful to health. 

With a view to reconfirming this, I started taking about 20 to 30 grams of salt daily.  For this purpose, I bought from a neighbouring supermarket a dozen good-looking plastic packets that had refined, finely ground, imported salt.  (I did not bother to find if this was iodine-enriched.)

I increased the salt intake by sprinkling it liberally on potato chips, smearing cut sour mangos in it before eating them raw, and adding plenty of it practically to all foods I ate.  I enjoyed eating cut jumbo fruits dipped in a mixture of salt and ground cumin seeds.  This is a delicacy!

During this period, I drank about 10 glasses (2½ L, instead of my normal 6 glasses = 1½ L) of plain, purified water, in addition to taking about three mugs of light coffee, daily.  I kept up my regular urination. 

I monitored my blood pressure, body weight, blood glucose, etc. once every week.  There was no change in any of the readings: my B/P stood at 115/68 mmHg, and Pulse 68/min., with insignificant fluctuation.  My unchanged body weight (on its own, without any diet control) has been 138 ½ pounds (63 kg) all the time – for the past 26 years!. 

Everything went on very well for about 5 months. Suddenly, I found some changes in my physical features.  My body weight increased to 145 pounds (66 kg), face became swollen, couldn’t pronounce words, speech became distorted, eye-sight became blurred, memory failure became noticeable, mind developed a confused state, ears became deaf, eye-bags developed, and I became lazy, lethargic and sleepy.

With all these in me, I couldn’t even cross a road properly, for I felt an imbalance often.  While crossing a road at a ‘zebra line’ in Myanmar (I had already joined a tour group a long time earlier), I even fell down on the road!  Dr. SM. Subramanian from Johore Bahru, my cousin and a fellow traveller, literally dragged me aloof, saving me from the on coming traffic!

Until now, I was never on drugs of any kind.  Once a year or so, I would gulp some analgesics, such as two tablets of paracetamol tablets, if I had any headache or body pain.  The last time I had antibiotics was in 1985 – that was to recover from severe diarrhoea I had after a visit to one of the neighbouring countries! 

I went for a medical check-up, and consulted a few specialists. I was put on steroids.  Finally, a reputable Endocrinologist diagnosed me as having Hashimoto’sHypothyroiditis, with a ‘woody hard’ thyroid gland!

In simple language, this means that my thyroid gland is dead, and thereby it has lost its capacity to produce the required thyroxine on its own.  Therefore, I have to substitute it with a synthetic pill, daily, for the rest of my life!

My blood was repeatedly tested.  Such tests showed the following readings: 

Both the Thyroid Antibody and the Microsomal Antibody were 2,621,440, instead of the normal <100. 

·               Thyroid Stimulating Hormone(TSH) became >100, instead of the normal range of 0.4-4.7 mlU/L.

·               Free Thyroxin (FT4) was <5 p mol/L instead of the normal 10 –25. 

·              A few more of the readings became erratic, suddenly.

·               All the electrolytes in my blood were at midpoints of the normal ranges. 

·               Whereas the sodium (salt, also an electrolyte) stood at 136, the normal range being 135 – 145 mmol/L.  This was at the base of the normal range, when it fact, I have been taking enormous quantities of salt! 

That was a joyous news, and my hypothesis was correct, after all!
Based on the thyroxin-related readings of my blood sample, I was then given with different doses of thyroxin hormone tablets. Regular blood tests performed at bimonthly intervals gave information pertaining to the right dosage my body required to manage itself in a ‘healthy state’! 

Now, I am hooked to it: I have to take 1¼ tablet (125 micrograms) of the thyroxin tablet daily, forever!  Yet, I have been having minor but nuisance-causing side effects until now, I guess, because of the hormone tablets.

All this while, I belonged to the Perfect category.  But, not any more!  What a pity!  I wanted to show to the world that one could live without any disease for 120 years.  That appears to have become ruined now! 

The above story is true! 

At this, I have the following questions to clarify: 

Why should this happen to me?

Where have I gone wrong?

What has caused the hypothyroiditis?

          If there was excessive iodine in the salt, by right, I should have developed hyperthyroidism, and not hypo.

It took a lot of thinking, recollections, and tracing of the history of my life style that I practised during the crucial six months’ period.  Every minute detail was recollected and analysed.

          With a view to tracing the truth, I studied intensely plenty of literature connected to endocrinology.  I was surprised to find that there does not seem to exist any literature that could provide a meaningful answer for the occurrence of this problem in humans.

          I approached some Endocrinologists with a view to co-operating with them to do some research so that we could establish the cause for the problem.  I thought, I would make an excellent study subject. 

          With a view to pursuing the research proceedings, I tried to convince my Consultant Endocrinologists by presenting the three recent books I have published recently.  I thought, this might create in him/her some respect for me as a researcher, so that he/she may allow me to do some research in this area, in their premises.  It did it! 

          Personally, I believe, if I can gain access to interviewing a hundred patients in an Endocrinology Clinic, I should be able to determine the cause that is responsible for the thyroid problems in people!  I think, I have the adequate pre-requisite knowledge to do that!  Now, having seen the green signal, I have to plan my research program and proceed with it soon.

          In the meantime, I have more or less traced theoretically the cause for the problem all by myself.  Let me lead you to the answer, which I believe, is right. 

The most probable cause for thyroid problems and also hyperactivity  in humans.  

          The situation leading to the development of hypothyroidism appears to be identical to the occurrence of the Insulin-Dependent ‘Juvenile’ Diabetes Mellitus Type I

          When a person consumes normal sugar, normal quantity of insulin secretes. 

When the sugar consumption increases, insulin secretion also increases proportionately to cope up with the excessive sugar input. 

Likewise, when a person takes less sugar, insulin secretion decreases. 

When a person stops taking sugar altogether, then the very secretion of insulin has no purpose.  As a result, the secretion gets totally withdrawn, giving rise to Diabetes Mellitus, Type II.

When the sugar consumption is increased to a level that is far beyond the tolerance limit – the threshold point, the only alternative available for the brain at this situation to prevent death is to ‘reject’ the sugar by ‘ignoring’ its very presence so that such sugars will get eliminated along with the excretory products, through urine and other sources. This could be best done only by a total withdrawal of insulin.  Thus, the function gets totally withdrawn, and as a result of it, a complete dependency for insulin gets initiated, and that will be the Type I, requiring a daily injection of the insulin, for rest of the life of a person. 

          The latter phenomenon is identical to the withdrawal of the monthly menstruation among fertile women.  If a woman continues to have orgasm through sex, she will continue to have menses even into her sixties.  If she refrains from it altogether, menopausewill set in at an early age. This occurs because the functioning of the reproductive system becomes redundant in such women.  This should be the reason why young females at Christian institutions, totally sacrificing their life for the service of God, develop early menopause.  Such occurrences become irreversible![1] The development of hypothyroidism is identical to the above. 

          Under normal circumstances, if the iodine supply is available through the food eaten (e.g., cabbage, sea fish, agar-agar jelly, etc.), then the person stays healthy with a normal quantity of thyroxine secretion.

When there is a shortage of iodine, hypothyroidism develops in him/her.  With a view to preventing this, the salt manufacturers enrich the salt with iodine.

          When the iodine consumption increases, the thyroxine hormone secretion also increases, giving the person hyperthyroidism.

          If and when the iodine input becomes far too much to tolerate, and crosses over the tolerance limit, the hyperactive state also should proportionately increase to an intolerable level, giving the person total insomnia, mental upset, limitless irritability, a rapid heartbeat (palpitation called tachycardia), very high blood pressure to the extent of bursting the blood vessels (cerebral haemorrhage) at the brain, resulting in stroke, followed by death.

          The best alternative for the brain at this situation is to withdraw totally (similar to the withdrawal of insulin in a Diabetes-I case) all the thyroxin secretions.  This can be best achieved by destroying the very thyroid gland, and that too in an irreversible manner!

          How could such destruction be carried out?

The above process must have occurred in me.  That is precisely why the auto-antibodies (viz., the Thyroid Antibody and the Microsomal Antibody productions) were produced in such unbelievably high numbers as stated above – in several millions, instead of <100!

Naturally, in the total absence of thyroxin, the Thyroid Stimulating Hormone(TSH) gets increased to more than 100 mlU/L, instead of being between 0.4 and 4.7.  This is to persuade the thyroid gland to secrete the thyroxin hormone.  Because of the irreversible nature of the thyroid gland, and related inability to produce any more thyroxin, the Free Thyroxin (FT4) content in the blood becomes drastically reduced – to a level that could be considered insignificant.  Thus, the quantity of FT4 in me became <5 mol/L instead of the normal range of being between 10 and 25.    

          So, the new situation where the thyroid gland would not secrete any more thyroxin, would give rise to a situation called hypothyroidism, and it is named after the Japanese Surgeon Hashimoto, hence the name Hashimoto’sHypothyroidism.

          The above must have occurred in me because of taking too much of iodine through iodine-enriched salt.

          The normal quantity of sodiumpresent in my blood shows that, the excessive saltI have been consuming has not done anything to me.  But it should be the iodine-enrichment that had damaged my body functions. (I found later that all the salt I consumed was iodine-enriched!)

          Had I taken such an excessive salt that has not been iodised, I would have been totally healthier all the time as I have been until now.   

The next question that arises out of this 

If the above is true, why should such a hypothyroidism develop in an obese person who takes only a negligible quantity of salt?

          Unfortunately, the obese persons, owing to their under-urination habit, accumulate abundant salt in their body. 
         As a result, (a) they don’t develop a craving for salt consumption, and (b) all the obese people take very little iodine-enriched salt through food.  A survey conducted (see Palaniappan, 1998) shows that the obese people don’t seem to prefer eating cabbage, jelly, black-pepper and the like.  Their preferred food appears to be meat items.  As a result of these two, the iodine intake gets drastically inadequate in the obese, thus giving them the hypothyroidism.  In this case, the disease development should be equivalent to that of the Type II diabetes – which may not be a permanent destruction of the thyroid gland.  Hence, it should be reversible[2]. 

However, as a rare occurrence, if an obese person is going to consume excessive salt without increasing water intake, then, any little iodine consumed will get accumulated to larger quantities, and this way, the person could get Hashimoto’s Hypothyroidities, along with the death of the thyroid gland.  Then, it would be irreversible. 

The presence of this disease should be common among the obese.  This disease in the Skeletal, Thin or Perfect persons (people like me), should be a rare occurrence.  You may call mine a ‘misadventure’.

          If the Skeletal, Thin and the Perfect people are going to consume mediocre quantity of iodine-enrichedrefined salt, unlike me, they would not develop Hashimoto’sHypothyroiditis, but would become hyperactive,because of the increased thyroxin produced as a result of the inducement provided by the iodine. 

I have seen this hyperactive problem in two children, who were brought to me for a possible cure a few years back, but I was unable to determine the cause for the problem at that time!  Hence, I did not fully succeed in my attempt to set right their hyperactive behaviour.

          Whatever, if the imported salt packets I bought in the local supermarket had a prominent label on it saying that it was ‘iodine-enriched’, I would not have used this salt, instead, I would have continued using the loose, un-enriched, ‘dirty-looking’, natural, local salt.  What am I to do now?

          Whatever, I am glad the above ‘misadventure’ gave me an insight into the long-time puzzle that couldn’t be solved until now.  Am I to thank God for it, or am to condemn Him for putting me into a problem of this kind forever?   

Recommendation to the people at large 

          Please use un-enriched, un-refined, un-processed natural, local salt that is cheaply priced, for all your cooking.  This is what the food manufacturers also should do.  You can take plenty of salt to taste, without any fear, as long as you are going to consume adequate quantity of water to throw away the excesses through urination. 

          The obese people should certainly (but gradually) increase (a) the water consumption and urination, and (b) the eating of iodine-rich cabbage, sea fish, agar-agar jelly, black pepper, and the like.  Proper guidance may be found in my book on obesity, in Chapter 10.

However, it appears the iodine-enriched salt should be good only for those who take little salt all the time. 

Whatever, with the knowledge available from this book, everyone should become aware of the dynamics of iodine for the management of the thyroid glands in a healthy state, and regulate the intake of iodine-enriched saltaccordingly. 

*   *    *    *    *    * 

After all this discussion, if I am to repeat asking you the same set of questions which I posed a while ago, you would give different set of answers.

Now, what do you think is the culprit that gives people hypertension and heart diseases?  Is it excessive salt intake, or is it a combination of inadequate water consumption and under-urination?

          Why, in your opinion, all these medical researchers have had misleading results?  What has gone wrong in their research programs?

          In all the above three studies, the medical researchers must have obtained blood samples from people, without giving any due consideration to the quantities of water consumed and the urine voided by any of those people.

          By right, they should have administered definite quantities of water to consume, and also should have monitored the amounts of water urinated by all those people whose blood samples were obtained for their salt contents.

          In other words, it may not be a mistake to assume that most of the research studies, conducted all these years without caring for the dynamics of water in the regulation of salt in human body, have been misleading the world population with the fallacy that increased salt consumption will deteriorate human health.

          At this point, it becomes imperative for us to under-stand the dynamics of sodium in relation to the process of human evolution.


Well, friends, my write-up on sodium and other related matters continue in my book.  

The current article is already too long. That being the case, if I am to copy-paste more pages from my book, it may put off even ardent followers from reading. Anyway, those who are interested, of course, can read my book entitled “Heart problems, …”.

I firmly believe that I have traced the true causes for all of the auto-immune diseases that have been a puzzle until this day.
At this, scientists in respective areas of specialization may want to perform experiments to re-confirm my findings.
Upon getting identical results, I only plead that they acknowledge my pioneering contributions.
With best wishes and thanks for reading such a lengthy article.
Dr. Palani, Ph.D.


[1]  More on the subject will form part of another book dealing with menopause.

[2] A few obese patients who had hypothyroidism became cured after attending the Group Therapy session – after taking plenty of iodine-enriched salt. Their thyroid gland must have been alive. 

So, what do you think ?